20 Avr Zone of Possible Agreement (Zopa)
Of course, common sense dictates that if there is no overlap in the areas of expectation of the seller and the buyer, a deal becomes highly unlikely. Even if ZOPA exists, the agreement still cannot be reached if the parties still cannot reach an agreement. The letter « P » in ZOPA, which means a possible agreement, is more likely to occur, but it is not definitive. The area of a possible agreement or negotiation period is not a physical place, but an area where two or more negotiating parties can find common ground. It is in this area that the parties often compromise and reach an agreement. For the negotiating parties to reach an agreement or agreement, they must work towards a common goal and seek an area that contains at least some of each party`s ideas. In addition to understanding ZOPA and negative ZOPA in a negotiation, you should also consider your best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA) before the discussions take place. BATNA is the course of action that a party will take if no agreement can be reached during a negotiation. In other words, a party`s BATNA is what it wants to resort to when a negotiation is not successful. NEGOTIATION ZOPA stands for Possible Agreement Area. It is the blue sky in which agreements are reached that both parties to the negotiations find acceptable. Whether we`re buying something at a busy farm sale, a country house, or a complex business venture, the possible agreement area is where a deal is most likely to happen. The buyer, on the other hand, wants to pay the lowest possible amount, but can consider a higher amount, which he may also be willing to pay.
The maximum amount they are willing to pay is also called the buyer`s « booking price » or « moving away » from the point of transaction. A ZOPA exists if there is an overlap between the booking price of each party (conclusion). A negative trading area is when there is no overlap. With a negative negotiating zone, both sides can (and should) leave. For example, a lender wants to lend money at a certain interest rate for a certain period of time. A borrower who is willing to pay this interest rate and accept the repayment period will share a ZOPA with the lender, and both may be able to reach an agreement. It really helped, but I`d be happy if you could help me with a full document on ZOPA (Zone of Possible or Potential Agreement). Thank you very much. A negative trading area can be overcome by « widening the pie ». In inclusive negotiations, which address a variety of issues and interests, parties who combine their interests to create value come to a much more rewarding agreement. Behind each position, there are usually more common interests than contradictory.  However, negative negotiating areas can be overcome if the negotiating parties are willing to inquire about each other`s wishes and needs.
For example, let`s say Dave explains to Suzy that he wants to use the proceeds from the sale of the bike to buy new skis and ski equipment. Suzy has a pair of gently used high-quality skis that she likes to part with. Dave is willing to take less money for the mountain bike if Suzy throws away the used skis. Both parties have obtained a ZOPA and can therefore conclude a fruitful agreement. Your ZOPA analysis should start by considering your best alternative to a negotiated deal or BATTANA, write Roger Fisher, William Ury and Bruce Patton in their groundbreaking negotiating text Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. Your BATNA is the course of action you would take if you did not reach an agreement in the ongoing negotiations. For example, if you decide to accept no less than $70,000 a year for a particular job offer, if you can`t negotiate that salary, your BATNA could be to take another job, look harder for other opportunities, or return to higher education. A negotiator should always start by considering the ZOPA of both parties at the earliest stage of his preparations and constantly refine and adjust these figures throughout the process. For each interest, there are often several possible solutions that could satisfy it.  When you start a negotiation, you rarely know how big ZOPA is or if there is room for a deal.
If you have prepared well, you have set up a makeshift walking line. This sets a zopa limit, but the other limit, your counterpart`s exit, will be obscure at best, just as your exit will be dangerous for them. This mutual uncertainty underlies much of the ensuing dance of offers and counter-offers. Take, for example, the sale of a used car. The buyer hopes to buy a vehicle at a price between $2,500 and $3,000. The seller is ready to sell for a price between $2,750 and $3,250. In this scenario, there is a positive trading area between $2,750 and $3,000, where the conditions of both the buyer and seller can be met. When both parties know their BATNA and leave their positions, the parties should be able to communicate, evaluate the proposed agreements and, possibly, identify zoPA.
However, parties often do not know their own BATNA and even less often know BATNA on the other side. Often, parties claim to have a better alternative than they actually do, because good alternatives usually lead to more power in negotiations. This is explained in more detail in the BATNA trial. However, the result of such deception could be the obvious absence of a ZOPA – and thus a failed negotiation if a ZOPA actually existed. Common uncertainties can also affect the parties` ability to assess potential agreements, as parties may be unrealistically optimistic or pessimistic about the possibility of an agreement or the value of other options.  The term Possible Area of Understanding (CCA), also known as a Potential Cartel Area  or Negotiation Range, describes the range of options available to two parties involved in sales and negotiations, overlapping the parties` respective minimum objectives. When there is no such overlap, in other words, if there is no possibility of a rational agreement, the inverse concept of NOPA (no possible agreement) applies. If there is a ZOPA, an agreement within the zone is rational for both parties. Outside the area, no negotiations should lead to an agreement. Characteristics of negotiation skills include: the ability to prepare and plan, knowledge of the subject to be negotiated, the ability to think clearly and quickly under pressure and uncertainty, the ability to express thoughts verbally, the ability to listen, judgment and general intelligence, integrity, the ability to convince others, patience, determination, consideration of many options, awareness of the process and style of the other person, is flexible and thinks and talks about possible areas of agreement. The seller wants to get the maximum possible amount for their proposal, but can usually also set a limit on the minimum amount they accept. The smallest amount they are willing to accept is called the seller`s « booking price. » This is the amount they draw the line at, also known as « moving away » from the point of transaction.
Regardless of the number of negotiations in progress, an agreement can never be reached outside the area of a possible agreement. To reach an agreement, the parties to the negotiations must understand each other`s needs, values and interests. The process of finding this area requires a little detective work to make it work. It starts with a proposal from a person, business entity or organization called a « promoter. » Essentially, it is the person who puts an offer on the table. The receiving part of a proposal is called the « prospect ». This is the natural or legal person who examines the merits of the offer or proposal. The interested party will accept the proposal, make a counter-proposal/counter-offer or reject it directly. This is where the game starts to be seriously fun. .